Settings of Coffee Drinking among the Jimma Oromo In Jimma Oromo culture coffee is served three times a day. There are morning coffee (buna ganamaa), midday coffee (buna guyyaa) and evening coffee (buna galgalaa) all of which have their own significances. However, the people host their visitors by making coffee in addition to these regular coffee ceremonies.
The first one is called buna ganamaa, morning coffee.
Morning coffee is one of the most known social stages in Oromo culture. Making coffee in the morning is used for various purposes. One of the most important purposes is that Oromo give thanks to their Waaqa (God) who helps them pass black night in peace.
The other important intention of coffee of this time is its association with good omen. Oromo believe if someone passes over prepared coffee or leave his home without having coffee he /she may face bad things on his way. For instance, persons whenfeeling failure in market say “utuu buna hin danfifanne bayee gabaan naa hin taane” to mean “I am unsuccessful in buying and selling today for I did not prepare coffee in my home today‟s morning”.
The other important function with regard to morning coffee is asking each other about the last night. This is an important event on which people share ideas among themselves. Jimma Oromo has an extended blessing on this coffee ceremony. These blessings touch every aspect of the society. Issues of fertility, productivity and peace are wished. Similarly, difficulties in the form of diseases, conflicts and hunger are averted via coffee blessing. The following is a typical Jimma Oromo blessing on morning coffee:
|Afaan Oromo Version||English Version|
Jabanaan jalli cufaadhaa
Waan hamaa isinirraa haa cufu
Jabanaan gubbaan banaadhaa
Keeyrii isinii haa banu
Barakatee fi bara gadhee oolaa
Akka bunaa isinaa dhaabu
Bunaa fi nagaa hin dhabinaa
Harka jabanaa qabdeen ilma qabi
Base of coffee pot is closed
May trouble closed from you
Upper part of coffee pot is open
Be filled with peace
Be saved from dearth of coffee and difficulties
Be established like coffee tree
Be abundant in coffee and peace
Let the women pouring coffee hold son by her hands holding coffee pot
The second setting of coffee ceremony is called buna guyyaa, midday coffee. A midday coffee is always served after having lunch and while people come back to home from work place. It is not mandatory to drink coffee of this time with neighbors for people may go to distant places for agricultural activities which impede their gathering at this time. It is used to overcome tiredness resulting from physical works and help the people to renew their mind and power for after lunch works. The third and final setting of coffee ceremony is called buna galgalaa, evening coffee. Evening coffee is mandatory to be drunk together. It is designed to give thank to Waaqa who helped them in all their ways. It is also an event on which neighbors ask each other what happened in the day. It is the event on which people discuss different issues of the society as well. It is therefore made to serve as break after long and tiresome daily labor. There is also blessing and thanks giving on evening coffee.
Coffee that is boiled and drank everywhere has no long history in the Oromo. Even these days when boiled coffee is becoming prevalent, many Oromo clans drink it with milk, and butter which are the symbol of fertility. They call it buna gurraacha roughly meaning black coffee which is seen as indicator of impoverishment. Hence boiled coffee became common for economic reasons.
This form of coffee does not require presence of much quantity of coffee beans when compared to buna qalaa, which is the commonest among the Oromo.